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Aim and Scope

Rekhta is an official publication of university of Sargodha and is managed by department of Urdu. Urdu Research Journal Rekhta accepts only unpublished Research Articles in Urdu. It's core subject area is Language and Literature. Our aim is to provide a space for promoting research activities in Urdu departments of universities and bringing its standards to the international level. We will pursue the new dimensions of Urdu's ... Read More

Current Issue



Volume 3 (Rekhta 5), Issue 1, 2022

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  • Abstract

    Abstract: Language is social need of humanity but if the question arises on the basis of gender as to whose role has been fundamental and important to this formation process then the structure and internal evidence of most languages show that there is much lesser feminine touch in it. Because of masculine domination, structure of most of the languages show that man is superior while woman is considered weak, fragile and inferior. In contemporary age some linguists are trying to make language neutral. The aim of eradicating the prevailing notions of masculinity and femininity by promoting gender neutral language is also to eradicate the notions found in the society, which are based on man fulfilling his social needs. For this, it is very important that the speeches which are biased when calling a gender are not encouraged . There are a number of words, idioms and proverbs in Urdu that express the ancient social concepts of gender and express men's feelings of gender superiority and, conversely, feminine inferiority, as in dictionaries. In the meanings given to man, not only his gender meaning is recorded but also all the notions of bravery, superiority, glory and splendour are present in the society since ancient times.

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    Authors

    Dr. Tariq Hashmi / Dr. Sumera Akbar

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  • Abstract

    This article, The study of social realism in the classic popular Urdu Nazm with the special reference of Jaffar Zatali and Nazeer Akbar Abadi, deals with question how the popular literature may have concern to pin the social evils up creating the creative Pen- picture. This piece of research further adds value to the work of these two giants of classic Urdu Nazm as they contributed to the Urdu Nazm for what it would turn out to be after a century. This article based on the socially concerned study of Urdu Nazm aims at discussing the Stylistic and medium role in the effectiveness of the Pen Picture of the issues in the colonial age as well. Thus, it becomes a post-colonial study too as well.This paper studies the influence of two great popular poets on the literary movements that claimed great changes in the gener of Urdu Nazm later in later centuries.

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    Authors

    Dr. Shabbeer Hussain / Dr. Muhammad Kamran.

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  • Abstract

    Ideological and thematic review of Khwaja Mueen ud Deen's published dramas has been carried out in this study. History of the Indian Muslims, their forefathers' achievements, the extremist nature of Hindus and various aspects of the tragedy of migration have been discussed in it according to his historical consciousness. The problems in the early years of Pakistan which were highlighted in his dramas are still present, as it is, in the third decade of the twenty first century. Thus thematically, there is the present-time meaning in his dramas. His loves for Urdu and patriotic fervor have been described at length in this study. He wants national reform through his dramas, so that the dream of renaissance of Islam may come true by the Muslims of Pakistan

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    Authors

    Jamshed Ali / Dr. Saima Irum

  • Volume : 3 (Rekhta 5) Issue : 1 Year: 2022

    4. Folk Tale; An Analysis. لوک کہانی، ایک تجزیہ

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  • Abstract

    Story is one of the oldest mediums of human beings to preserve and express their experiences. The story has been existed in almost every language of humans. Folktale is an oldest form of story. The folktales encapsulate collective experiences and cultural ethos and of people. Nevertheless, Folktales travel from one language to another and they are common heritage of humans. This article explores Punjabi folktales and underscores their salient features.

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    Authors

    Dr. Saeed Bhutta.

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  • Abstract

    Literature is said to be the reflection of society whereas a story-teller is said to be the eyewitness of society. Even though a historian has, since the ancient times, been documenting the rise and fall of nations and political upheavals in true letter and spirit, but in the light of new critical discourse and consciousness of the present era, the witness of author or story-writer or a novelist has relatively more authenticity and certification in this respect that a novelist, as compared to the impassive description of a historian, delineates such a sensitive contemporary panorama in his tales, that it has diverse possible dimensions of life in it; moreover, a novelist, through his perception and insight, is able to discern the legendary pick of the lush-green valley of love even in case of hateful barren lands of warfare and cruelty whom the historian regards dead and inanimate; whereas a novelist deems the sprouts of love to be the most essential and basic cause of the creation of universe."Gul Meena", novel of Zaif Syed, is also the same sort of legend of love and infatuation of Zarjaan and Gul Meena, who belong to the tribal Pashtun regions. This is a tale of colonial imperialism, of the exploitative scams of foreign powers and of the desired interpretation of religion by native warring organizations, growing increasingly in tribal areas of Pakistan; rather it's an ultimate strife to sing a love-song in this frightful atmosphere. A contemporary proof of the incurable terrorism, prevalent in Pakistani tribal areas, this novel, " Gul Meena", even artistically proves the dexterity and alacrity of the tale-teller. This novel can surely be credited as an important addition to the tradition of Urdu novels based on the depiction of contemporary history. The article under discussion presents this core issue of the novel in the form of analysis.

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    Authors

    Dr. Azra Perveen

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  • Abstract

    Urdu novel emerged from the cultural venture of eastern and western civilization. Eastern civilization declined after its massive success while western civilization progressed due to its scientific inventions. Moreover, the conventional scholars failed to comprehend the change in political, social, and economical spheres. With these new changes, Muslims perceived western values to have a bad influence on them. Deputy Nazeer Ahmed tried to overcome the effects of western civilization through religious concerns instead of understanding the cultural differences along with their background. This Article tries to understand the cultural conflicts of eastern and western civilization in Deputy Nazeer Ahmad's Novels.

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    Authors

    Asia Nazli

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  • Abstract

    Developed nations provide access to different disciplines of knowledge of other nations through translations for its public. Basically translation is a source of initiating new discipline of knowledge, progress and prosperity in their society comparatively to the other nations and social uniformity prevail over there. In fact translation is a sensitive process. The first mile stone of this process is to understand the discourse analysis and contextual meaning of the context. Background knowledge of any language and its historical metaphors spirit is needed to visualize. Etymological meanings are unable to convey the real meaning. Sensitivity of phrasal verb, idiomatic usage and expression sensitivity through adjective, dialect and proverbial meaning are necessary to be expressed through translation. The author of the article has expressed deep sightedness of Jamil Jalbi used in translation of “Eliot K Mazameen” and further “Arasto Say Eliot Tak”. According to J.J “A replica from a language to another is creation of a master piece through amalgamation of two civilizations in one frame with establishing recognition of both individually”. The dialect, style and stating expression should mirror the same reflection through translation as stated by the first. The focus of the researcher is to highlight the attributes of J.J reflected in both of the marvelous and classical works of J.J “Arasto Say Eliot Tak” and “Eliot K Mazameen”.

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    Authors

    Fozia Shehzadi/ Dr. Muhammad Amjad Abid.

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  • Abstract

    The modern Urdu literature is not only about the magical description of the beauty but also gives a good shape to emotions and feelings. When sensitive feelings put their shadow on tender heart of the poet, words take the shape of colors and its fragrance spread all around the circle. It has been evident that not only male poets produce beautiful lyrics but also many woman poets are leading in this field of literature. Beauty and tenderness of words are the true reflection of any literary personality. Poetesses produce collective wisdom regarding poetic sense of beauty and charm. Many modern beautiful and reputable poetesses included Zuhra Nigar, Parveen Shakir, Noshi Gillani, Samina Raja, Tanvir Anjum, Rehana Qamar, Azra Abbas, Shahida Hussan, Shahida Ltaif, Humera Rehman, Fakhra Batool, Hameeda Shaheen, Ambreen Salah-ud-Din. The article under review will point out the aesthetic elements in the poems of Urdu poets.

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    Dr. Sabeena Awais Awan / Dr. Amir Iqbal.

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  • Abstract

    “Shab Khoon” Magazine was started in 1966.It is the mouth piece of modernity. When the trend of modernity became common, it had some basic ideas different from the progressives modernity has liberated literature from the shackles of philosophy and ideology. It gave the creator freedom of expression. Now, the writer is free to write what he sees and feels on his own. The focus of the fiction writers of this period is on the individual. The myth of this age presents pictures of the social conditions and events of its time. Conflict, materialism, profiteering, selfishness, clerks’ life, bureaucratic exploitation, racial discrimination, caste segregation with a drawstring, political oppression and exploitation are the themes of the myths of this period. It looks like a sack that encloses.

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    Authors

    Rabia Bibi / Dr. Altaf Yousafzai

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  • Abstract

    This paper enclosed the impact of hegemony or monopoly of imperialism over the subcontinent. Imperialism controlled the situation in two ways, first controlled with power and second to change the mind set of people and injected the inferior complex in their mind. To achieve this purpose imperialism used two mega tools "education" and "language". The invasion of the imperialistic culture over the subcontinent had become so widespread that English language, European learning and civilization were portrayed as positive inspirations in most of the books, written during the colonial periods. Speaking English language practicing European etiquette had become norms of decency. Making different languages as mediums of expression were inherent in every language. To insist that one particular language was the only means of cultured expression was nothing but a strategy to exclude all languages from the sphere to literary and scholarly effort. In this way, Iqbal exposed hollowness of the western civilization and culture by raising voice of protest against their blind following and asserted that Islamic culture and civilization was far more universal than the European culture. During this study, mix methodology approach is used i.e descriptive analytical and historical. This study finds out the result that Iqbal's thoughts have decreased the invasion of the hegemony and monopoly of European imperialistic culture over the subcontinent.

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    Authors

    Dr. Tariq Javed./ Rubina Kausar.

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  • Abstract

    Dr. Tabassum Kashmiri is known as a critic, researcher, poet and especially a historian. But he also wrote a novel, which was published in 1993. The novel was published under the title "Qasba Kahani". Literary critics have not paid much attention to this novel. The "Qasba Kahani" which offers new experiences of form. This article contains an analytical study of the novel "Qasba Kahani" which is an excellent example of an anti-hero in the history of Urdu novel.

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    Authors

    Zeshan Wakeel./ Dr. Safeer Haider.

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  • Abstract

    Nou-Lakhi Kothi is the first novel of Ali Akbar Natiq, published in 2014.Basically he is a poet. His two books of poetry have been published and well received by the critics. This article presents a cultural analysis of his novel “Nou-Lakhi Kothi”.“Nou-Lakhi Kothi” is a face of subcontinent’s social, political, religious and cultural history. This study focuses on presentation of subcontinent society and its multiple aspects in novel. This article will also highlight the facts and effects of colonialism in subcontinent.

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    Authors

    Dr. Muhammad Yar Gondal

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  • Abstract

    Society came into being by a group of people’s. Each society has its own values which help them to survive and develop. Society is never precisely the same from one moment to the next. Change is very core of life. Society accepts global influences. It is affected by all sorts of factors, problems and development projects. Social change breaks the traditional process that gives rise to new demands. As a society develops and accepts the effects of other factors, its values has also change. It absorbs some new beliefs, customs, values, and practices. Sociologists have studied this variability from different angles and have tried to examine the social causes that lead to a change in the values of society. There are three major perspectives of sociology (Symbolic, Functionalism and Conflict). This article examines the reflection of changing social values in the fiction of Mirza Athar Baig in the context of Social theory given by famous sociologist “Emile Durkheim”.

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    Authors

    Sidra Tahir

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  • Abstract

    Sufism in Persian and Urdu literature originated with arrival of Persian language in subcontinent and now it is a main common topic in Persian and Urdu literature of the subcontinent. Sufis from different mystic families took part in prose and poetry writing of Persian and Urdu languages in subcontinent.The following article presents a brief review of poetry of two Sufis, Jamali Dehalvi (10th century AH) from Suharwardi family and Khawja Mir Dard (12th century AH) from Naqshbandi family in light of common mystic thought in subcontinent.

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    Authors

    Musarrat Sarwar

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  • Abstract

    Hali is a renowned writer and modern poet of contemporary Urdu literature. First benefited from Ghalib and then Shaifta. After that he started working for Punjab Book Depot and after he became indirectly acquainted with English literature and Western ideas. At the same time, Hali become important member of the Syed movement. Sir Syed's innovative and modern approach, Shaifta's simplicity and affiliation with the Punjab Book Depot gave a new impetus to the Hali’s thinking. Hali tried to innovate in both poetry and prose. The traditionalist class began to dislike this current modern and intellectual endeavor. One of these resistant elements was Oudh Punch. The newspaper's ideology was to oppose the Syed movement. As Hali was an important intellectual member of the Syed movement, this newspaper kept the front against Hali hot for a long time. From the Musaddas to the publication of the Dewan, every creative work of Hali was well received by the arrows of satire by Oudh Punch. Hali had sharply criticized the Luckno poetry. The writers of Oudh Punch took great revenge on Hali for the above two reasons and criticized Hali's poetry and thought with various tactics. The article under review is based on a critique of Oudh Punch on Hali.

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    Authors

    Gul Ahmad

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  • Abstract

    This article intends to evaluate the education system introduced by the great Muslim reformer Syed Ahmad Khan who is better known as Sir Syed. His name immediately brings to mind Mohammadan Anglo Oriental College and Alighar Muslim University. He was the first person in 19th century India who paid unmatched attention towards education of the Muslim populace. He had to face severe criticism and strong resistance from the religious circles but he remained committed and dedicated. As far as his services for the Muslim education in India are concerned; no one can deny them. However, there is another side of the picture too, which is considerably dark. There were some inherent flaws and drawbacks in the system of the great man. These defects not only proved detrimental to Muslims in United India but also adversely affected the educational system in Pakistan. We are still struggling with these issues after 75 years of independence. What are these shortcomings which we inherited, and, how have they destroyed our education and psyche, have been covered in this paper.

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    Authors

    Dr. Sobia Tahir